Migraines, Cluster, Tension or Sinus. What type of headache do I have and what can I do ?
When there is pressure or pain in your head, it can be difficult to tell whether you are experiencing a typical headache or a migraine. Differentiating a migraine headache from a traditional headache, and vice versa, is important. It can mean faster relief through better treatments. It can also help prevent future headaches from occurring in the first place. So, how can you tell the difference between a common headache and a migraine?
What is a headache?
Headaches are unpleasant pains in your head that can cause pressure and aching. The pain can range from mild to severe, and they usually occur on both sides of your head. Some specific areas where headaches can occur include the forehead, temples, and back of the neck. A headache can last anywhere from 30 minutes to a week. According to the Mayo Clinic , the most common headache type is a tension headache . Triggers for this headache type include stress, muscle stain , and anxiety.
Tension headaches aren’t the only type of headache; other headache types include:
Cluster headaches are severely painful headaches that occur on one side of the head and come in clusters. This means you experience cycles of headache attacks, followed by headache-free periods.
Often confused with migraines, sinus headaches co-occur with sinus infection symptoms like fever, stuffy nose, congestion, and facial pressure.
A Chiari headache is caused by a birth defect which causes the skull to push against parts of the brain, often causing pain in the back of the head.
A “thunderclap” headache is a very severe headache that develops in 60 seconds or less. It could be a symptom of a serious medical condition that requires immediate medical attention. It may also be caused by an aneurism , stroke, or other injury. Call 911 immediately if you experience a headache of this kind.
What is a migraine?
These headaches are intense or severe and often have other symptoms in addition to head pain. Symptoms associated with a migraine headache include:
pain behind one eye or ear
pain in the temples
seeing spots or flashing lights
sensitivity to light and/or sound
temporary vision loss
When compared with tension or other headache types, migraine headache pain can be moderate to severe. Some people may experience headaches so severe they seek care at an emergency room. Migraine headaches will typically affect only one side of the head. However, it is possible to have a migraine headache that affects both sides of the head. Other differences include the pain’s quality: A migraine headache will cause intense pain that may be throbbing and will make performing daily tasks very difficult.
Migraine headaches are typically divided into two categories: migraine with aura and migraine without aura. An “aura” refers to sensations a person experiences before they get a migraine. The sensations typically occur anywhere from 10 to 30 minutes before an attack. These can include:
feeling less mentally alert or having trouble thinking
seeing flashing lights or unusual lines
feeling tingling or numbness in the face or hands
having an unusual sense of smell, taste, or touch
Some migraine sufferers may experience symptoms a day or two before the actual migraine occurs. Known as the “prodrome” phase, these subtler signs can include:
depression ( mood swing )
unusual food cravings
Because most headaches are stress-induced, taking steps to reduce stress can help relieve headache pain and reduce the risk for future headaches. These include:
heat therapy , such as applying warm compresses or taking a warm shower
Prevention is often the best treatment for migraine headaches. Examples of preventive methods your doctor may prescribe include:
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making changes to your diet, such as eliminating foods and substances known to cause headaches, like alcohol and caffeine
taking prescription medications, such as antidepressants or ,blood pressure lowering medicine
taking steps to reduce stress
Although I personally do not advocate taking over the counter medications people who have migraines less frequently may benefit from taking medications known to reduce migraines quickly. Examples of these medicines include:
mild to moderate pain relievers, such as acedometiphin , or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, naproxen sodium , or ibuprofen
triptans, such as almotriptan (Axert), rizatriptan (Maxalt), or sumatriptan (Alsuma, Imitrex, and Zecuity)